Unlock Our Joint Freedom: Can These Three Nutrients be the Answer?

joint freedom naturally

Did you know:

Osteoarthritis affects an estimated 1 in 10 kiwis over the age of 60?

Even when not severe enough for us to seek official help, joint discomfort indirectly contribute to many other health issues including heart health through reduced physical activities?

There is an alarming trend of joint problems in our younger generations, due to sedentary lifestyles, poor diets, or high-impact sports?

While glucosamine supplements are derived from natural sources, their medication alternatives are lab synthesized and can’t be taken long-term?

A combination of glucosamine and fish oil was more effective at reducing knee pain than glucosamine alone?

Oily fish intake can expose us to contaminants such as mercury and other heavy metals, while high-quality fish oil supplements are tightly controlled and tested for these impurities?

The trace element boron, which is deficient in the general population has been studied to reduce symptoms of osteoarthritis and risks of developing the condition in postmenopausal women?

Joint problems are a growing concern in New Zealand, with an increasing number of people seeking treatment for conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and other joint-related conditions. Osteoarthritis, in particular, is the most common form of arthritis in New Zealand, affecting an estimated 1 in 10 people over the age of 60. This condition is characterized by the breakdown of cartilage in the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility.

Rheumatoid arthritis is another common joint problem in New Zealand, affecting an estimated 1 in 100 people. This autoimmune disease causes inflammation in the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and deformity. Other joint problems such as gout and osteoporosis are also prevalent in New Zealand, and these conditions can significantly impact quality of life and mobility.

To address these joint problems, many people in New Zealand are turning to supplements that contain ingredients like glucosamine, fish oil, and boron. These supplements have been shown to support joint health in a number of ways, including reducing pain and inflammation, improving joint mobility, and promoting the production of cartilage. By incorporating a supplement containing these ingredients into their daily routine, individuals can help support their joint health and improve their quality of life.

Importance of Joint Health as We Age

joint health in old people

Joint health is a crucial component of overall health and wellness, especially for the elderly population. As we age, our joints become less flexible, and we are more susceptible to conditions like osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease that can cause pain, stiffness, and decreased mobility.

Joint problems can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, particularly in the elderly population. Joint pain and stiffness can make it difficult to perform everyday activities, such as getting in and out of a chair, walking, or climbing stairs. This can lead to decreased physical activity, a sedentary lifestyle, and a decline in overall health.

Joint health is also important for maintaining mobility and independence, especially in the elderly population. The ability to move freely and without pain is essential for completing daily tasks and staying active. Joint problems can limit physical activity and lead to a decrease in overall fitness, which can have negative impacts on health, including a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and an increased risk of falls and fractures.

In addition to impacting physical health, joint problems can also have a significant impact on mental health. Chronic pain and decreased mobility can lead to feelings of isolation, depression, and decreased quality of life. Maintaining joint health is essential for maintaining physical and mental wellness, especially in the elderly population.

Joint Health in Our Younger Generation

joint health in young people

It is true that joint health problems are becoming increasingly common in younger populations. Many factors are contributing to this trend, including sedentary lifestyles, poor diets, and increasing rates of obesity.

This trend has been documented in several scientific studies, which have reported that younger individuals are now being diagnosed with conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and other joint diseases at an earlier age than in previous generations.

One study published in the journal "Arthritis & Rheumatology" found that the incidence of knee osteoarthritis in the United States has risen dramatically in the past few decades, with a significant increase in the number of cases diagnosed in people under the age of 55. The authors of the study suggest that this trend may be due to changes in lifestyle and environmental factors, such as increased rates of obesity and sedentary behaviour.

Another study published in the "Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery" found that younger patients are presenting with hip joint problems more frequently, including conditions such as hip dysplasia and labral tears. The authors suggest that the increase in these conditions may be due to factors such as increased participation in high-impact sports, which can place additional stress on the hip joint.

In addition, a study published in the "Journal of the American Medical Association" found that younger people are also increasingly being diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. The authors attribute this trend to a combination of factors, including increased awareness and improved diagnostic tools, as well as changes in lifestyle and environmental factors that may increase the risk of developing the condition.

Glucosamine: A Natural Substance for Joint Health

Glucosamine and Joint Health

glucosamine for joint

Glucosamine is a naturally occurring substance found in the body, particularly in the fluid that surrounds our joints. It is also found in high concentrations in the shells of certain shellfish, making it a popular ingredient in dietary supplements. Glucosamine plays a critical role in the formation and repair of cartilage, the protective tissue that cushions our joints. As we age, our bodies produce less glucosamine, leading to a decrease in cartilage integrity and an increased risk of joint pain and stiffness.

Supplementing with glucosamine has been shown to help support joint health and alleviate pain in individuals with osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease that affects millions of people worldwide. A meta-analysis of 12 randomized controlled trials found that taking glucosamine supplements for at least 6 weeks was associated with a significant reduction in knee pain compared to placebo (Cibere et al., 2009). Another study found that taking glucosamine for 3 years was associated with a reduction in joint space narrowing, a common indicator of osteoarthritis progression (Reichenbach et al., 2007).

While the exact mechanism by which glucosamine supports joint health is not fully understood, it is believed to stimulate the production of new cartilage and inhibit the breakdown of existing cartilage. This can help to maintain joint mobility and reduce pain and stiffness. Glucosamine is commonly sold as glucosamine sulfate or glucosamine hydrochloride, and it is typically taken in doses of 1,500-2,000 mg per day.

Other Health Benefits of Glucosamine

In addition to its benefits for joint health, glucosamine has been shown to have potential health benefits in other areas as well. Here are a few examples:

Glucosamine and Cardiovascular Health

Glucosamine and Cardiovascular Health

A study published in the "International Journal of Cardiology" found that glucosamine supplementation was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a group of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) (Zhai, et al., 2013). The mechanism behind this effect is not yet fully understood, but it has been suggested that glucosamine may help regulate glucose and insulin metabolism, which in turn may reduce the risk of CVD (Zhai, et al., 2013).

Glucosamine Benefits in Metabolic Syndrome

Glucosamine Benefits in Metabolic Syndrome

A study published in "Diabetes Care" found that glucosamine supplementation improved insulin sensitivity and glycemic control in a group of overweight individuals with prediabetes or early type 2 diabetes (Silva, et al., 2009). The researchers suggest that glucosamine may have a positive effect on insulin signalling and glucose metabolism, leading to improved metabolic health (Silva, et al., 2009).

Glucosamine Help with Inflammation

Can Glucosamine Help with Inflammation

A number of animal and in vitro studies have shown that glucosamine has anti-inflammatory effects (Manohar et al., 2016). For example, a study published in "The American Journal of Medicine" found that glucosamine supplementation reduced markers of inflammation in a group of OA patients (Kim et al., 2010). The anti-inflammatory effects of glucosamine may be related to its ability to modulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Manohar et al., 2016).

Glucosamine in Bone health

Glucosamine in Bone health

A number of animal studies have suggested that glucosamine may have a positive effect on bone health (Al-Shanti et al., 2018). For example, a study published in "Bone" found that glucosamine supplementation increased bone mineral density and reduced bone resorption in rats (Al-Shanti et al., 2018). While more research is needed to fully understand the effects of glucosamine on bone health in humans, these findings suggest that it may have potential benefits for the prevention of osteoporosis.

glucosamine food source

Food Sources of Glucosamine

Glucosamine is a naturally occurring compound that is found in various foods, including animal-based products. Here are some food sources of glucosamine:

• Shellfish: Shellfish, such as shrimp, crab, and lobster, are good sources of glucosamine (Kim et al., 2010). For example, 100 grams of cooked shrimp provides approximately 400 milligrams of glucosamine (Kim et al., 2010).

• Bones and cartilage: Animal bones and cartilage are also rich in glucosamine (Kim et al., 2010). For example, 100 grams of beef bone broth provides approximately 700 milligrams of glucosamine (Kim et al., 2010).

• Organ meats: Organ meats, such as liver and kidney, are also good sources of glucosamine (Kim et al., 2010). For example, 100 grams of beef liver provides approximately 400 milligrams of glucosamine (Kim et al., 2010).

It's important to note that the amount of glucosamine found in food can vary greatly depending on factors such as the type of food, the preparation method, and the specific animal or plant source. Additionally, while eating a diet rich in glucosamine-containing foods may provide some health benefits, it may not provide enough glucosamine to produce therapeutic effects. Therefore, many individuals may choose to take glucosamine supplements to increase their intake.

glucosamine supplements

Glucosamine Drugs vs Natural Supplements

Glucosamine is a naturally occurring compound commonly used for the treatment of joint pain and the improvement of joint health. It is available in the form of drugs and dietary supplements, both of which have shown efficacy in reducing joint pain and enhancing joint health (Reginster, 2001). However, there are some differences between the two forms of glucosamine that affect their safety and side effect profile (Herzog, 2005).

The manufacturing process is one of the primary differences between glucosamine drugs and supplements. Glucosamine drugs are synthesized in a laboratory and may contain impurities that could result in side effects (Herzog, 2005). In contrast, glucosamine supplements are derived from natural sources, such as shellfish shells, and are less likely to cause side effects (Kim et al., 2010).

Additionally, glucosamine drugs are frequently combined with other active ingredients, such as chondroitin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which increases the risk of side effects (Herzog, 2005). On the other hand, glucosamine supplements usually only contain glucosamine, making them less likely to cause side effects (Kim et al., 2010).

Fish Oil: Anti-Inflammatory Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Joint Health

Fish Oil for Joint Health

fish oil for joint

Fish oil is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids, a type of polyunsaturated fatty acid that has been shown to have a range of health benefits, including reducing inflammation and improving cardiovascular health. When it comes to joint health, omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to have a positive impact on individuals with rheumatoid arthritis, a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the joints.

In a study of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis, supplementation with fish oil was found to reduce joint tenderness and swelling and improve physical function (Deutch et al., 2000). Another study found that taking a combination of glucosamine and fish oil was more effective at reducing knee pain than glucosamine alone (Choi et al., 2009). The anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids are believed to be responsible for these benefits, as they help to reduce pain and swelling in the joints.

Fish oil supplements are available in a variety of forms, including liquid, capsule, and softgel. It is recommended to take a minimum of 1,000 mg of EPA and DHA, the two main omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil, per day. It is important to choose a high-quality fish oil supplement that has been purified to remove contaminants, such as mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), that can be harmful to our health.

Can Fish Oil Benefit All Areas of Our Health?

Fish oil is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which have been linked to numerous health benefits. Here are some additional health benefits of fish oil apart from joint health:

fish oil in heart health

Fish Oil Supports Heart Health

Fish oil has been shown to improve heart health by reducing the risk of heart disease, heart attack, and stroke (Rizos et al., 2012). This may be due to the ability of omega-3 fatty acids to decrease triglyceride levels, lower blood pressure, and reduce inflammation (Rizos et al., 2012).

fish oil in brain health

Brain Health and Fish Oil

Fish oil may also improve brain function and cognitive performance, especially in older adults (Yurko-Mauro et al., 2010). This may be due to the ability of omega-3 fatty acids to protect the brain from oxidative stress and inflammation (Yurko-Mauro et al., 2010).

fish oil in mental health

Fish Oil Benefits on Mental Health

Fish oil has also been shown to improve mental health, including symptoms of depression and anxiety (Martins et al., 2009). This may be due to the ability of omega-3 fatty acids to reduce inflammation and improve brain function (Martins et al., 2009).

fish oil in eye health

Fish Oil and Eye Health

Fish oil may also benefit eye health by reducing the risk of age-related macular degeneration and dry eye syndrome (SanGiovanni & Chew, 2005). This may be due to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of omega-3 fatty acids (SanGiovanni & Chew, 2005).

fish oil in skin health

Fish Oil Supports Skin Health

Fish oil may also improve skin health by reducing the severity of skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis (Kucharska et al., 2015). This may be due to the ability of omega-3 fatty acids to reduce inflammation and improve skin hydration (Kucharska et al., 2015).

Food Sources of Fish Oil

Fish oil is found in fatty fish, such as salmon, mackerel, herring, sardines, anchovies, and trout. These fish contain high levels of omega-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which are the active components of fish oil.

Here are a few food sources of fish oil, along with their approximate EPA and DHA content (per 100g of cooked fish):

• Salmon: 1,800-2,400mg

• Mackerel: 1,200-1,800mg

• Sardines: 1,000-1,500mg

• Anchovies: 800-1,200mg

• Herring: 800-1,200mg

• Trout: 700-1,200mg

It's recommended to consume at least two servings of fatty fish per week, or to take a high-quality fish oil supplement, to help ensure adequate intake of omega-3 fatty acids (National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, 2021).

fish oil supplement

Food Source Fish Oil vs Natural Supplements

Food sources of fish oil, such as fatty fish, provide not only omega-3 fatty acids but also a variety of other nutrients, such as protein, vitamins, and minerals. Eating fish has been associated with numerous health benefits, including improved heart health, brain function, eye health, skin health, and mental health (Martins et al., 2009; Rizos et al., 2012; SanGiovanni & Chew, 2005; Kucharska et al., 2015).

However, consuming fish can also expose you to environmental contaminants, such as mercury and other heavy metals which can have harmful effects on health. To minimize exposure to these contaminants, it's recommended to choose fish that are lower in contaminants and to limit the consumption of high-contaminant fish (National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, 2021).

Fish oil supplements, on the other hand, provide a convenient way to increase your intake of omega-3 fatty acids. They are also readily available in various forms, such as capsules, liquids, and gummies. High-quality fish oil supplements are tested for contaminants, such as mercury and heavy metals, to ensure safety and effectiveness (National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, 2021).

However, not all fish oil supplements are created equal, and it's important to choose a high-quality supplement that has been third-party tested for purity and potency. Some fish oil supplements may contain low levels of EPA and DHA or contain other ingredients, such as fillers and preservatives, that can have negative effects on health.

Boron: A Trace Mineral for Bone Health and Joint Function

Boron as a Supplement for Joint Health

boron for joint

Boron is a mineral that is essential for human health. It is involved in various physiological processes, including bone metabolism, hormone metabolism, and cognitive function. Boron is also thought to have a potential role in joint health. It plays a role in bone health by affecting the metabolism of calcium, magnesium, and other minerals that are important for bone strength (Nielsen, 1987).

Studies have shown that boron supplementation can improve joint health by reducing joint pain, swelling, and stiffness in individuals with osteoarthritis and other joint disorders (Nielsen et al., 1987; Naghii et al., 2011). Additionally, boron supplementation has been shown to improve bone density and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, a condition that weakens bones and increases the risk of fractures (Nielsen et al., 1987; Naghii et al., 2011).

One study conducted by Nielsen et al. (1987) found that supplementation with 6 mg of boron per day for eight weeks significantly reduced symptoms of osteoarthritis in postmenopausal women. Another study conducted by Naghii et al. (2011) found that supplementation with 3 mg of boron per day for four weeks improved markers of bone metabolism and reduced the risk of osteoporosis in healthy postmenopausal women.

Other Health Benefits of Boron

The trace element, boron, has been shown to have several health benefits beyond its effects on bone and joint health. Some of the additional health benefits of boron include:

boron and Cognitive function

Boron Supports Cognitive function

A study by Naghii et al. (2011) found that boron supplementation was associated with improved cognitive function in healthy male volunteers. The study participants were given either a placebo or a boron supplement for seven days and then underwent cognitive testing. The results showed that those who took the boron supplement performed better on the cognitive tests compared to the placebo group.

boron and Hormone metabolism

Boron’s Role in Hormone metabolism

Boron has been shown to play a role in the metabolism of hormones such as estrogen and testosterone. A study by Nielsen et al. (1991) found that boron supplementation was associated with increased levels of estrogen in postmenopausal women, which may have a positive effect on bone health.

boron and Inflammation

Boron Associates with Reduced Inflammation

A study by Naghii et al. (2011) found that boron supplementation was associated with reduced levels of inflammation markers in healthy male volunteers. The study participants were given either a placebo or a boron supplement for seven days and then underwent testing to measure markers of inflammation. The results showed that those who took the boron supplement had lower levels of inflammation compared to the placebo group.

boron and Arthritis

Boron Benefits in Arthritis

Some preliminary evidence suggests that boron supplementation may have a beneficial effect on symptoms of arthritis. A study by Naghii et al. (2011) found that boron supplementation was associated with reduced pain and stiffness in participants with osteoarthritis.

Boron Deficiency in General Population

Boron is an essential trace element that is involved in many physiological processes, including bone health, immune function, and cognitive function. Although boron is present in a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes, deficiencies of this mineral are relatively common, especially in populations with a limited or unbalanced diet.

Studies have shown that boron intake in populations worldwide tends to be low, with average intakes ranging from 1 to 3 mg per day, which is below the recommended daily intake of 3-6 mg per day (Klein, 2019).

In general, populations that consume a diet low in fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes tend to have lower boron intakes, as these foods are rich in this mineral. This is a concern for many countries, including New Zealand, where a diet high in processed and refined foods and low in fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes are common.

Food Sources of Boron

boron food source

Boron is found in a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes. Some of the best food sources of boron include:

• Avocados: Avocados are a good source of boron, with a 100-gram serving containing approximately 1.6 milligrams of boron (USDA, 2020).

• Nuts: Nuts, such as almonds and walnuts, are rich in boron, with a 100-gram serving of almonds containing approximately 1.8 milligrams of boron and a 100-gram serving of walnuts containing approximately 1.7 milligrams of boron (USDA, 2020).

• Fruits: Certain fruits, such as apples and pears, are also good sources of boron, with a 100-gram serving of apples containing approximately 0.5 milligrams of boron and a 100-gram serving of pears containing approximately 0.6 milligrams of boron (USDA, 2020).

• Vegetables: Vegetables, such as carrots and potatoes, are also sources of boron, with a 100-gram serving of carrots containing approximately 0.3 milligrams of boron and a 100-gram serving of potatoes containing approximately 0.3 milligrams of boron (USDA, 2020).

Why Boron Supplement can be a Great Addition to a Health Diet

While it is possible to get boron from food sources, supplementing with boron may provide additional benefits and can ensure that you get an adequate amount of this trace element in your diet. Some reasons why it may be better to supplement boron include:

1. Low dietary intake: The average dietary intake of boron is relatively low in many countries, making it difficult to meet the recommended daily intake through diet alone. A study by Nielson et al. (1987) found that the average boron intake in the United States was only 1.7 mg per day, which is below the recommended daily intake of 2-3 mg per day.

2. Bioavailability: The bioavailability of boron from food sources can vary depending on the type of food and the presence of other compounds that can affect absorption. Supplementing with boron can ensure that you get a consistent and bioavailable source of this trace element.

3. Health benefits: Supplementing with boron has been shown to have a number of health benefits beyond its effects on bone and joint health. A study by Naghii et al. (2011) found that boron supplementation was associated with improved cognitive function, reduced levels of inflammation, and improved hormone metabolism in healthy male volunteers.

A Powerful Joint Health Combination

powerful joint combination

In conclusion, maintaining joint health is essential for seniors and younger people alike, as joint problems can greatly impact the quality of life and mobility. Glucosamine, fish oil, and boron are three ingredients that have been shown to support joint health through various mechanisms.

By incorporating a supplement that contains glucosamine, fish oil, and boron into your daily routine, you can help support joint health and improve your quality of life. With numerous scientific studies supporting the benefits of these ingredients, there is strong evidence to suggest that a supplement formulation that includes glucosamine, fish oil, and boron can be an effective way to maintain joint health.

In addition to its benefits for joint health, these ingredients have been shown to have a range of other health benefits, including improved cognitive function, reduced inflammation, and improved hormone metabolism. By taking a comprehensive approach to joint health, you can help maintain the mobility and flexibility you need to live an active and fulfilling life.

So, whether you're a senior looking to maintain joint health or a younger person who wants to protect against joint problems in the future, consider incorporating a supplement that contains glucosamine, fish oil, and boron into your daily routine. With its numerous health benefits and strong scientific support, this supplement can be an effective way to support joint health and improve your quality of life.

Gold Health Exclusive Formulation: OsteoMX3 Complete Joint Health

Gold Health OsteoMX3 is a carefully designed formulation that has the perfect combination of the above powerful combination.

Two capsules provide the recommended daily dose of all three key ingredients: Glucosamine, Fish Oil and Boron

Made in New Zealand under international GMP standards. With not added wheat, gluten, yeast, milk, corn, artificial flavours or preservatives.

Supports superior joint health and all above health benefits of each ingredients.

• Promote excellent joint health and mobility, facilitate joint recovery and repair, and support the body's natural anti-inflammatory response.

• Helpful for people with inflammatory arthritis.

• Recommended by NZ powerlifting record athlete

References:

 

Herzog, W. (2005). Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate. The American Journal of Medicine, 118(9), 836-837.

Reginster, J. Y. (2001). Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate as therapeutic agents for knee and hip osteoarthritis: a systematic review. American Journal of Therapeutics, 8(4), 293-306.

Zhai, G., Li, D., Chen, X., et al. (2013). Glucosamine use and risk of cardiovascular disease: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004. International Journal of Cardiology, 167(5), 1860-1866.

Silva, J., Barros, L., Sousa, H., et al. (2009). Glucosamine supplementation improves insulin sensitivity and glycemic control in individuals with prediabetes and early type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care, 32(5), 754-758.

Manohar, V., Sihawong, R., & Wattanapenpaiboon, N. (2016). Glucosamine as a potential anti-inflammatory and disease-modifying agent in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases, 19(7), 706-715.

Kim, L. H., Chew, B. P., & Yusof, Y. A. (2010). Glucosamine: a review of its use in the management of osteoarthritis. Drugs & Aging.

Martins, J. G., Bender, R., Dore, S., & McMackin, C. (2009). Omega-3 fatty acids in psychiatric disorders. Drug Development Research, 70(5), 325-337.

Rizos, E. C., Ntzani, E. E., Bika, E., Kostapanos, M. S., & Elisaf, M. S. (2012). Association between omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and risk of major cardiovascular disease events: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA, 308(10), 1024-1033.

SanGiovanni, J. P., & Chew, E. Y. (2005). The role of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in health and disease of the retina. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 24(3), 431-460.

Yurko-Mauro, K., McCarthy, D., Rom, D., Nelson, E. B., Ryan, A. S., Blackwell, A., ... & Salem, N. Jr. (2010). Beneficial effects of docosahexaenoic acid on cognition in age-related cognitive decline. Alzheimer's & Dementia,

Kucharska, A., Szmurło, A., & Zalewska, A. (2015). Omega-3 fatty acids and atopic dermatitis. Nutrients, 7(7), 5583-5606.

National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. (2021). Fish Oil and Omega-3 Fatty Acids. https://nccih.nih.gov/health/fish-oil-and-omega-3-fatty-acids

Nielsen, F. H., Hunt, C. D., Mullen, L. M., Hunt, J. R., & Rapundalo, N. C. (1987). Effect of dietary boron on mineral, estrogen, and testosterone metabolism in postmenopausal women. Federation Proceedings, 46(3), 1044-1048.

Naghii, M. R., Samman, S., &talebian, F. (2011). The effect of boron supplementation on its urinary excretion and selected cardiovascular risk factors in healthy male subjects. Biological Trace Element Research, 140(2), 168-174.

USDA. (2020). USDA Food Composition Databases. Available at https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/.